Hastings Rashdall (1858-1924) first published The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages in 1895. It has remained one of the best-known studies of the great medieval universities for over a century. Volume 2 Part 1 covers the Italian universities from the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries; the universities of Spain and Portugal from the thirteenth to the sixteenth centuries; the universities of France with detail on the universities of Montpellier, Orleans, Angers, Toulouse and Avignon; the universities of Germany, Bohemia and the Low Countries; the universities of Hungary; and the universities of Scotland. The origins and constitutions, institutional development, and curriculum of each university is analysed. Rashdall's study was one of the first comparative works on the subject. Its scope and breadth has ensured its place as a key work of intellectual history, and an indispensable tool for the study of the educational organisation of the Middle Ages.